IoT for monitoring water quality and bird control in aquaculture

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By Milthon Lujan

Proposed system based on the Internet of Things (IoT). Source: Bose et al., (2024); Discov Appl Sci.
Proposed system based on the Internet of Things (IoT). Source: Bose et al., (2024); Discov Appl Sci.

Aquaculture, crucial for providing proteins and reducing pressure on wild populations, faces challenges such as maintaining optimal water quality and protecting fish from bird attacks. Traditional methods often involve costly and labor-intensive solutions with unintended environmental consequences.

A new study explores a novel approach that utilizes real-time water quality monitoring and bird attack prevention to create a smarter and more sustainable aquaculture experience.

Scientists from JIS University, Brainware University, Dibrugarh University, and Koneru Lakshmaiah Education Foundation presented a comprehensive solution leveraging Internet of Things (IoT) technology, real-time monitoring, and bird deterrent mechanisms to enhance aquaculture efficiency.

Challenges in Aquaculture

Currently, aquafarmers employing traditional ponds face the following challenges, among others:

  • Water quality: Temperature, pH, oxygen, and other factors can affect fish health. Traditional monitoring methods are often slow and inaccurate.
  • Bird predation: Birds can cause significant economic losses to aquafarmers. Traditional mesh enclosures are expensive, labor-intensive, and environmentally harmful.

The Proposal

The research delves into a comprehensive solution that reinvents aquaculture using the power of the Internet of Things (IoT). Here’s how it works:

  • Real-time water surveillance: Imagine sensors constantly monitoring critical water parameters like temperature, pH, and turbidity. Real-time data flows to an easy-to-use web application and SMS alerts, enabling farmers to make informed decisions on the spot.
  • Goodbye bird nets: Say goodbye to costly and environmentally damaging nets! This system employs motion detection sensors that trigger gentle water sprayers to deter birds, creating a haven for fish without harming their feathered friends.
  • Precision, Efficiency, and Sustainability: With a temperature deviation of just 0.40°C compared to traditional tools, the system boasts impressive accuracy. This translates to better fish health, reduced losses, and minimized resource usage, paving the way for sustainable and efficient aquaculture.
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Benefits for All

Utilizing the system designed by the researchers brings the following benefits:

  • Improved fish health and survival: Optimized water quality reduces stress and diseases, resulting in healthier fish.
  • Reduced environmental impact: Traditional fenced nets are costly, environmentally harmful, and trap non-target species. Birds also suffer entrapments and behavioral disturbances.
  • Increased efficiency and cost savings: Real-time monitoring helps aquafarmers make informed decisions, saving time and resources.

Alternative, humane solutions such as automated deterrents and habitat modifications are effective and less intrusive. These methods deter birds without harming them or damaging the ecosystem.

Going Beyond the Basics

This research adopts a comprehensive approach, uniquely combining existing technologies. It addresses key challenges in aquaculture while promoting sustainability and animal welfare.

Future research should explore further automation, data analytics, and integration with other aquaculture management systems. This way, technology has the potential to revolutionize aquaculture globally, making it more profitable, sustainable, and ethical.


“The proposed IoT-based system combines real-time water quality monitoring and bird attack prevention to enhance aquaculture efficiency,” concluded the scientists.

The research opens doors to further innovation in aquaculture technology. Exploring automation, AI-based decision support and remote monitoring capabilities can further improve industry sustainability and efficiency.

By combining intelligent technology with a focus on environmental responsibility, this research paves the way for a future where aquaculture thrives, providing healthy food for all while also protecting our planet.

Haraprasad Mondal.
Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh, Assam, 786004, India
Email: mandal.haraprasad@gmail.com

Reference (open access)
Bose, R., Sutradhar, S., Mondal, H. et al. Integrating environmental monitoring and bird attack prevention in fish farming: a combined solution for improved pond management. Discov Appl Sci 6, 81 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42452-024-05621-x